Carceral geography is a growing sub-discipline within human geography, and those listed here are some of the researchers working in this area, who have previously joined an informal research network in this area.
With the launch of the Carceral Geography Working Group (CGWG) of the RGS-IBG, this network has been replaced by CGWG membership – but the network profiles remain here as a reference.
Dylan ADDISON is a PhD Candidate at the University of Delaware. Her most recent research centers on an ethnography she conducted examining the experiences of people using and operating prison visitation transportation services on the east coast of the US, and how their prolonged contact with the carceral apparatus shapes their lives. Dylan’s current research also examines the encompassing tendencies of the prison visitation process, and addresses the explicit exclusion of BIPOC queer and trans people from the visitation literature. Her research areas include critical carceral studies, prison abolition, carceral geography, and transformative justice.
Ben BARRON is a PhD student in Geography at the University of Colorado – Boulder, USA. He researches Colorado’s State Wildland Inmate Fire Team (SWIFT), a program that trains and deploys incarcerated men as wildland firefighters. Drawing on feminist geography and more-than-human geography, he considers how participation in the SWIFT program changes an individual’s sense of self – both articulated and embodied – and how this in turn shapes relational power dynamics, including along lines of race and gender, within the prison, on the fire line, and after release.
Peter DEBARTOLO is a D.Phil. candidate in Sustainable Urban Development at the University of Oxford. He also has completed specialized doctoral training with the Centre for Research into Information, Surveillance, and Privacy (CRISP) at the University of St. Andrews and is a member of the Surveillance Studies Network. His research interrogates how post-9/11 urban policing, securitization, and surveillance intersect with the racialization of ethnic minority communities in Western cities and the performance of Orientalist imaginative geographies of the War on Terror.
Shaul COHEN, Director, University of Oregon Prison Education Program. I am a professor of political and cultural geography specializing in ethno-territorial conflict. For the past decade I have been involved in prison education, directing the Prison Education Program at my university and as a member of the national Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program’s Executive Committee. As part of my work in four prisons in Oregon I have been involved in research and shared authorship with a group composed of incarcerated and non-incarcerated individuals. This group also serves as a resource for those interested in prison education and policy, and I am part of a group in our state’s legislature working to develop reform oriented initiatives.
Claire Elizabeth COIA is a Curator for the Open Museum, which is the outreach branch of Glasgow Museums. Graduating with an MA in History of Art from the University of Glasgow, Claire has developed her portfolio of expertise in ‘spaces of confinement’ which involves taking museum objects beyond the walls of the museum to work in partnership with people in prisons and psychiatric hospitals. Her passion lies in making art accessible to people who are traditionally excluded, creating dynamic opportunities for engagement through facilitating community curated exhibitions and projects. Claire is currently undertaking an MRes in Human Geography with an interest in art and carceral space.
Costanza CURRO is a social anthropologist with an interest in the former Soviet Union and Central and Eastern Europe. She defended her PhD at University College London in 2017. Her current research investigates social and cultural processes in Georgian prisons and other carceral spaces, notably the street and the neighbourhood. She is also interested in Roma’s experiences of carcerality in Central and Eastern Europe from the communist period to the present day.
Andonea DICKSON is a PhD candidate in International Relations at Queen Mary University of London. My research critically engages with systems of migration regulation in maritime geographies. A principle aspect of my analysis is the specificity of the sea to strategies of control and exclusion, considering how the space of the maritime is embedded in strategies of mobility control. I also focus on the coerced and carceral mobilities that increasingly inform at sea strategies of migration containment.
Luca FOLLIS is Senior Lecturer in Law & Society in the Law School at Lancaster University and Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. He is a political and legal sociologist working at the intersection of power, resistance and technology. His current research focuses on mobilities, health data and healthcare systems, as well as the impact of networked technology on the exercise of state power. His ongoing research interests focus on the linkages between crisis, carceral systems and social change. His work has been published in journals such as Law, Culture and the Humanities, EPD: Society and Space, Information, Communication & Society, Geoforum and The International Journal of Communication. He is the author of Hacker States (MIT Press 2020, with Adam Fish) and co-investigator of the Wellcome Trust funded project: Doctors within Borders: Networking Initiative on Mobile Populations in Contemporary Health Systems.
James GACEK is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Justice Studies at the University of Regina. He holds his PhD in Criminology from Edinburgh Law School at the University of Edinburgh. Drawing upon criminology and carceral geography, his PhD project focused upon the regulation of inmates through law, state surveillance and community corrections in the UK. Under the supervision of Professor Rose Ricciardelli, he completed a Postdoctoral Fellowship in the Department of Sociology at Memorial University of Newfoundland. He continues to extensively publish in reviews, journals and international fora, particularly in areas of (1) corrections and community justice; (2) green criminology; and (3) the broader socio-politics of judicial reasoning. With Professor Richard Jochelson, he has recently co-authored Criminal Law and Precrime: Legal Studies in Canadian Punishment and Surveillance in Anticipation of Criminal Guilt (2018, Routledge) and co-edited Sexual Regulation and the Law: A Canadian Perspective (2019, Demeter Press). He is currently the co-editor of the Manitoba Law Journal (RobsonCrim Edition) and continues to peer review submissions for Critical Criminology, Punishment & Society, and The European Journal of Criminology, among others.
Francesca GIOFRÈ is Associate professor, Sapienza University of Rome, Faculty of Architecture, Department Architecture and Design. Her research areas are innovation in the design and building process, design for all and healthy cities. The research projects within this framework are on health and social architecture and their environment. She is a Member of the Interuniversity Research Centre TESIS, Systems and Technologies for Health Care, Social and Teaching Buildings. She published articles and book on Design the Prison as F. Giofrè, P. Posocco (2021) Donne in Carcere. Ricerche e Progetti per Rebibba, LetteraVentidue Edizioni, IT.
Luis GONZÁLEZ ALVO has a PhD in History (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina), he works at the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (Argentina) as professor of Latin American and Argentine History. His works engages the constructions of penitentiary systems in Latin America. His latest researchs focuses on the penitentiary system of Tucumán during the first Peronist administration (1946-1955)
Leslie GROSS-WYRTZEN is a postdoctoral associate with the Council for African Studies and a Faculty Fellow in the Center for Race, Indigeneity, and Transnational Migration. She is a feminist geographer (Clark University, 2020) whose work focuses on the relationship between borders, race, and political economy between Africa and Europe. Her first book project, entitled Bordering Blackness: The Production of Race in the Morocco-EU Immigration Regime, draws on 11 months of ethnographic research among West and Central African migrants moving through or contained within Morocco, and was funded by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship and a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad fellowship. She has written on migrant abandonment as a technique of neoliberal carcerality, and on the relationship between public health, criminal incarceration, and immigration detention.
Lirio GUTIÉRREZ RIVERA is an associate professor at the Dept. of Politica Science at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia and Research Associate at the Centre for Criminology at the University of Oxford. Lirio’s research has focused on urban violence, prisons, marginality and exclusion, migration and gender. She has conducted fieldwork in Latin America, particularly in Honduras and Colombia. Her recent study draws on Lirio’s work as expert witness in immigraiton courts in the US, it focuses on Central American migrants seeking asylum in the US as well as Central Americans attempting to not be deported to their ‘country of origin’.
Sarah HUGHES is Vice Chancellor’s Research Fellow, Northumbria University. She is a Political Geographer, working on issues of asylum politics, resistance, citizenship and the politics of epistemology within the academy.
Paz IRARRÁBAL GONZALEZ, researcher at UOH and University of Chile. She holds a PhD from King´s College London. Her work is interdisciplinary combining legal geography, criminology and political theory approaches to explore the criminalization of people regarded as urban disorder and the law´s contribution to shaping of geographies of exclusion. She has studied the policing of “incivilities” and the configuration of the idea of “public order” in Chile. Her current research project focuses on the criminalization and policing of street workers. She is an activist for prisoners’ rights.
Tamara Zeina JAMIL is an architect and researcher interested in the geopolitics of incarceration, specifically in the relationship between urban and rural jail expansion in the US. Tamara has recently completed her master’s degree at the Centre for Research Architecture at Goldsmiths, University of London, where she focused on the imminent closure of Rikers Island (New York City’s 415-acre jail island) and its replacement with four new ‘Borough-Based Jails’, a new typology in carceral design. Currently, Tamara conducts research with Forensic Architecture.
Andrew M. JEFFERSON is Senior Researcher, DIGNITY – Danish Institute Against Torture. Andrew’s ethnographically oriented research focuses on prisons and prison reform in the global south, the relations between confinement and subjectivity, and compound experiences of human suffering under compromised circumstances. Current research includes a project on legacies of detention in Myanmar and a study of quality of life in Tunisian prisons. He co-convenes the Global Prisons Research Network.
Sue JEONG KA is an interdisciplinary artist and a postgraduate candidate in Architecture and Critical Studies at Kungliga Konsthögskolan. Ka’s research based works explore the ways in which three institutions—public libraries, private universities, and carceral systems—are connected in a double bind of complicity and restorative care around incarceration. Inspired by recent protests against police brutality and New York City’s plan to close Rikers Island and open new borough-based small jails, her/their new project examines the geopolitical relationship between the new jail locations and immigrant neighborhoods, particularly Chinatown.
Diana JOHNS is Senior Lecturer in Criminology, The University of Melbourne. She researches and teaches across the domains of prisons and punishment, children/young people and the criminal legal system, and criminal justice knowledge production. Her work is focused on the effects of criminalisation, the impacts of imprisonment, and the possibilities of restorative and relational justice practices. Her book Being and Becoming an Ex-Prisoner was published by Routledge in 2018. She is currently working with colleagues on two new books – Place, Race, and Politics: The Anatomy of a Law and Order Crisis (Weber et al., Emerald) and Coproducing Criminal Justice Knowledge (Johns et al., Routledge).
Maya S. KEARNEY is an Anthropology PhD candidate at American University in Washington, DC. Her research fields include socio-cultural and urban anthropology, carceral geography, and Black geographies with a topical focus on political economy, urban housing and development, race and space/place, and prisoner reentry. Her dissertation examines state processes that have transformed urban space into what she calls a “gentrified-carceral city” and explores how gentrification impacts housing security for men and women reentrants in material and symbolic ways that is connected to a sense of place and belonging.
Claire LOUGHNAN is a Lecturer in Criminology, at the School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne. Her research has two key strands: it centres on the modes, practices and effects of living and working in carceral and confined spaces, including immigration detention, prisons and aged and disability care; and it explores the trend towards criminalised and racialized responses to border crossings, with a particular focus on the offshoring/externalisation of responsibilities for refugees. Her doctoral research examined the way that those working in immigration detention responded to the toxic environments characterising mmigration detention.
Carolyn MCCAY is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Sydney Law School where she teaches Criminal Law, Civil & Criminal Procedure and Digital Criminology. She is CoDirector, Sydney Institute of Criminology. Carolyn is recognised for her research into technologies in justice, specifically her empirical research into prisoners’ experiences of accessing justice from a custodial situation by audio visual links, published in The Pixelated Prisoner: Prison video links, court ‘appearance’ and the justice matrix (2018) Routledge. In 2021, Carolyn will commence an ARC Discovery Early Career Research Award ‘The Digital Criminal Justice Project: Vulnerability and the Digital Subject’.
Jessica MCCOY is a published postgraduate student at Northumbria University studying MSc Environmental Monitoring, Modelling and Reconstruction with interests in palaeoecology and environmental modelling.
CHERYL MCGEACHAN is a Lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Glasgow. Her research explores the historical and social geographies of mental ill-health, crime, and social justice. Recently she has worked on projects relating to art and prisons, including working in collaboration with Barlinnie Prison in Glasgow to research experimental prison reform. She is also interested in the historical geographies of crime and forensics, studying the underexplored figure of the police surgeon in nineteenth century Scotland.
Will McKEITHEN’s research explores questions of health, state violence, and kinship, with a focus on North American communities targeted by mass incarceration, White supremacist heteropatriarchy, and neoliberal austerity. My most recent research examines the paradoxes of prison healthcare. While prisoners in the US have a constitutional right to basic healthcare, this formal right sits at odds with the racist and classist logics of disposability that drive mass incarceration. Other past projects have included a collaboration with geographer Skye Naslund investigating the ties between racial capitalism and helminthic therapy and an investigation of kinship and care relations under the changing sex-gender norms of neoliberal capitalism.
Eleanor MARCH is Research Fellow in Interdisciplinary Prison Research, University of Birmingham. She researches cultural representations of the carceral, focusing on prisoner writing, literary and media representations of prisons, and prison history. Her research has an interdisciplinary focus, working across literature, carceral geography, criminology and history.
Lauren MARTIN is Associate Professor of Political Geography at Durham University. Her current research focuses on the carceral economies of immigration control and asylum reception, building on previous projects on the privatisation of border enforcement, legal geographies of detention visitation, and the intimate geopolitics of family detention in the US. In 2020, she was a Political Economy Research Fellow with the Independent Social Research Foundation researching the financialisation of immigration detention and asylum housing. She is currently PI on the ESRC-funded GLiTCH Project exploring digital and financial inclusion in refugee governance (www.glitchspaces.org). From 2020-2023 she will serve as Secretary of the Carceral Geography Working Group.
Bénédicte MICHALON is Senior Researcher, French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRs). She works at the crossroads of critical migration studies, critical border studies and carceral studies. She is interested on detention and house arrest for foreigners, as well as on housing for asylum seekers and governmental mobilities. Her fieldwork is in Romania, France, and has a focus on rural spaces. She is a member of the Migreurop network and runs a blog on carceral social sciences.
Christophe MINCKE is Director of the criminology department at the (Belgian) National Institute for Forensic Sciences and Criminology (NICC), Professor at Facultés Universitaires Saint-Louis, Bruxelles, Belgium. He has developed the concept of “mobilitarian ideal” to analyse the contemporary relation to mobility of Western societies. Through four imperatives (activity, activation, participation, adaptation), social actors are demanded to constantly move in a decompartmentalised space. He tracks traces of this ideology in the field of imprisonment justification, using empirical material from parliamentary documents pertaining to the new Belgian penitentiary law to show how imprisonment is conceived, nowadays, as a mobility challenge.
Matt MITCHELSON is Associate Professor of Geography, Kennesaw State University (Georgia, USA). I am interested in the always human geographies of detention and confinement. I am also interested in the political and urban-economic geographies that create (and are created by) those spatial processes. Most of my research has centered on the spatial process of imprisonment, primarily the southeastern United States, and the rise of mass imprisonment in the region (1973-Present). My current research interest is in tracing the historical-geographic roots of detention and confinement as a spatial logic of (dis)empowerment and social control. I am inspired by the abolitionist vision of a world beyond the wall and the cage.
Dominique MORAN is Professor in Carceral Geography, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK. Her research and teaching is in the sub-discipline of carceral geography, a geographical perspective on incarceration. Supported by the ESRC, my research has informed and extended theoretical developments in geography, criminology and prison sociology, whilst interfacing with contemporary debates over hyperincarceration, recidivism and the advance of the punitive state. She is currently researching the persistence of the Victorian prison, the impact of nature contact in prison and the experience of ex-military personnel working in the prison service. Prof Moran was founding Chair of the Carceral Geographies Working Group until 2020.
Marie MORELLE is Senior Lecturer in Geography at Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. Her interests focus on Cameroon/Africa (prison, access to justice, carceral reform) and police practices in the context of France.
Karen M MORIN is Professor of Geography, Bucknell University, Pennsylvania, USA. My interests span the history of geographical thought and literacy in North America, postcolonial geographies, carceral geographies, and critical animal studies. Books include Women, Religion, & Space: Global Perspectives on Gender and Faith, co-editor Jeanne Kay Guelke (2007); Frontiers of Femininity: A New Historical Geography of the Nineteenth-Century American West (2008); Civic Discipline: Geography in America, 1860-1890 (2011); Historical Geographies of Prisons: Unlocking the Usable Carceral Past, co-editor Dominique Moran (2015); and Carceral Space, Prisoners and Animals (2018). My current project explores the forced migration and experiences of bovine animals within American rural carceral archipelagoes (contracted, University Georgia Press).
Kathryn OSGOOD, independent researcher.
James OLESON is Associate Professor of Criminology, University of Auckland. Trained in both psychological criminology and law, I am interested in criminological theory, criminal law and procedure, elite crime, and sentencing/punishment. I am currently writing my fourth book, The Prison in Popular Culture, under contract with University of California Press.
Kimberley Peters, Helmholtz Institute for Functional Marine Biodiversity (HIFMB), Researcher, writer and teacher of political geographies and mobilities at sea. Kim has pursued this interest through a carceral lens via interrogating the politics of mobilities aboard the prison ship and more recently through developing ideas around the ‘carceral seas’ (both with Jennifer Turner). Kim has published various things under this banner and is the author and editor of 7 books including: Living with the Seas (Routledge 2018); Carceral Mobilities (Routledge, 2016); The Mobilities of Ships (Routledge, 2015); Rebel Radio (Palgrave, 2017) and the discipline-wide textbook Your Human Geography Dissertation (Sage, 2017).
CHRIS PHILO is Professor of Geography at the University of Glasgow. He has long researched a certain kind of ‘carceral’ space, namely the lunatic asylum or, in more modern parlance, the in-patient psychiatric facility; and at the same time he has long been a reader (borrower from) Michel Foucault’s ‘spatial histories of the mad, the bad and the sad’, with their abiding interest in ‘the arts of spatial distributions’ as played out in the likes of asylums, prisons and hospitals. As such, he has also long regarded the study of ‘carceral geographies’ as indispensable to critical-spatial scholarship, leading him to pen a paper back in the early-2000s (for what was then the International Journal of Population Geography) on the theme of ‘Accumulating Populations’ – on the concentration of essentially captive populations, often in large numbers, in ‘closed spaces’ such as prisons – and on the spatial strategies deployed by institutional authorities to discipline, order and otherwise turn ‘unruly’ into ‘docile bodies’. Since then he has periodically written about and contributed conference presentations on aspects of carceral geographies.
Jayne PRICE is Lecturer in Criminology, University of Chester. My principal research interests lie within the youth justice agenda and young adults experience of the Criminal Justice System. My PhD was a collaborative project with Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. This research aimed to ‘explore pathways and transitions between juvenile and adult penal institutions’ and sought to establish the most effective and progressive ways of supporting young people through their transition.
Sabrina PUDDU is an architect, researcher and educator. She currently works as Marie Curie Postdoctoral Researcher at KU Leuven, Faculty of Architecture, with the research project ‘Territories of Incarceration.’ Her research focuses on the role of major public institutions across the divide of the urban and rural conditions with more recent work on the architecture of rural prison, which includes case studies in Italy (the agrarian penal colonies), Belgium (prison farms and Colonies of Benevolence), and US (the California Conservation Camps). Sabrina has co-authored two books and publishes regularly on architectural magazines and journals.
Leanne PURDUM is completing her PhD in geography at the University of Georgia. She combines critical approaches to human rights, humanitarianism, and enforcement to think through US immigration policies and the violence of detention and deportation. Her dissertation research stems from volunteer work as a legal advocate in the South Texas Family Residential Center, a “family” detention center in Dilley, Texas. She examines the discourses of helping and care that are embedded in litigation and policy debates over family detention, and the role these discourses play in developing “nicer prisons” instead of closing family detention centers down. This case study contributes to broader discussions of rights, refugees, and migration, to understand the spread of structures and procedures that perpetuate worldwide detention regimes.
Marina RICHTER is a a geographer and sociologist, working currently in a school for social work, which gives me the valuable opportunity to directly connect research with praxis through teaching and through applied research. I have conducted research on topics such as end-of-life in prison, work of prisoners, independency of professions such as doctors or social workers, or on education in carceral settings. Currently, I am collaborating in a project that compares different potentially carceral institutions regarding their space-time-regimes to manage the people living in them (together with the Prison Research Group of the University of Bern, Switzerland).
Adriana ROMERO-SANCHEZ is a Graduate Student, Law School, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her current research interests are focused on punishment in transitional justice contexts, in particular discourses and emotions regarding the restorative sanctions established in the Peace Agreement between the Colombian state and FARC Guerrillas.
Ashley RUBIN is an assistant professor of Sociology at University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. She holds a PhD in Jurisprudence and Social Policy. Rubin’s research examines the dynamics of penal change throughout US history. In particular, she uses organizational theory, law and society, punishment and society, and prison sociology to understand prisoner behavior, administrative behavior, and penal trends more broadly. In addition to her books The Deviant Prison and Rocking Qualitative Social Science, she is currently writing a book on the history of American prisons.
Simone SANTORSO is lecturer Department of Criminology and Sociology at the University of Hull (UK). His current research and political focus is on the relation between carceral spaces, penal policies and human mobility in Italy and UK. He also works for the prison abolition and the eradication of spaces of detention. He is coordinator of the working group on Prison, Punishment and Detention for the European Group For Study Deviance and Social Control.
Anna SCHLIEHE is a Research Associate in the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge University. Her previous research explored the Scottish criminal justice system’s responses to young women. She has published numerous articles on young people’s experiences of carceral spac and theorisations of carceral geography. Her new book, Young Women’s Carceral Geographies” Abandonment, Trouble and Mobility will be published by Emerald Press in August 2021. She is currently Treasurer of the Carceral Geographies Working Group.
Luisa T. SCHNEIDER is Assistant Professor in Anthropology at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and Research Partner at the MPI for Social Anthropology in Halle (Saale). My DPhil in anthropology is from the University of Oxford (2018). I focus on intimacy, violence, and law in Sierra Leone and Germany and on confinement in and outside of prisons. I am interested in how people negotiate the space to live their most intimate needs and also study laws that help or hinder these efforts. Currently, I am developing a project which examines how rough sleepers push into the prisons to escape the hardship of the streets.
Joshua DM SHAW is a PhD student at Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, whose research focusses on law’s relations to bodies, embodiment and the regulation of health, with an interest in carceral, including transcarceral, spaces. He draws on socio-legal theory, legal geography and carceral geography in his research.
Bruce STANLEY is a specialist in International Relations, Middle East cities, and political risk. He is currently an Adjunct Professor in International Relations at Richmond the American International University in London where he teaches Conflict Resolution, and Politics of the Middle East. He has served as a consultant to the EU, USAID, the Quakers, and various NGO donors across the Middle East; was Country Director for AMIDEAST in the West Bank and Gaza from where he supported training programmes for Palestinian universities and civil society. He has written on issues of conflict resolution, social movements, and urban resilience, and is currently writing a book on ‘Middle East City Networks’ and on issues of urban carcerality in the region.
Anaïs TSCHANZ, PhD in criminology, is a Researcher and Lecturer at the French National Correctional Administration Academy (ENAP). Through a wide range of research interests (such as carceral facilities for adults or juveniles, prison transfer, probation, restorative justice, technologies of control) she analyses the carcerality of spaces or practices and discusses what carceral logics and discourses shape and reveal. Drawing from this framework, her work focuses mainly on the daily negotiation of carceral spaces and the individual and collective tactics deployed in constraining but flexible environments.
Jennifer TURNER is a human geographer whose research focus on architectures and infrastructures that exist on the boundary between prison and society. Her monograph, “The Prison Boundary: Between Society and Carceral Space” (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016) interrogates the notion of a hard and fast separation between the inside and outside of prison by presenting a variety of case studies that demonstrate a complex and changeable boundary relationship. Continuing to focus on the everyday, performed, and practised experiences of carceral space, other research interests include the prison-military-complex, conceptualising carceral space and carceral (im)mobilities. Jennifer is currently the Chair of the CGWG.
Julie VULLNETARI is a Lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Southampton. Previously, she studied and worked at the University of Sussex, researching migration and development, including the links between internal and international migration, the gendering of remittances, and the impact of migration on older people left behind. She has also researched everyday life in socialist societies through oral history interviews and archival material in the context of Albania, through which she has developed her scholarship and ongoing research interest in feminist geopolitics and critical border studies. Julie’s interest in carceral geographies sits at the intersection of migration and incarceration, and the liminal space that third country nationals inhabit when they are imprisoned for offences other than those under the immigration regulations. Within this area, she is interested in their daily life and experiences, as well as those of their families, both living in their country of origin and the country where they have been imprisoned in, and how the imprisonment impacts on the notion of family and family-hood.